This book is intended for the last definition. As the science of technology advances and the demand for technologists in- creases educators, architects, engineers, contractors, carpenters, and other workers in allied fields are becoming more cognizant of the importance and value of near accuracy even in estimates. It is at this juncture that the author, in his desire to be of some help, prepared this edition as an introductory text to facilitate the studies of beginning students and other interested persons who wish an instant answer to their problems involving cost of construction materials. This book is, by design, an outline whose purpose is to guide those persons concerned on matters of estimation. Tables and formula have been prepared with the hope that readers or users of the book will find it easy to for- mulate solutions to their cost problems. Illustrative examples were included to serve as visual aids for more perplexing prob: lems.
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By definition, Plain Concrete is an artificial stone as a result of mixing cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and water. The conglomeration of these materials producing a solid mass is called plain con- crete. Reinforced Concrete on the other hand, is a concrete with reinforcement properly embedded in such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces.
The Ordinary Portland cement. The Rapid Hardening Portland Cement whi when high early strength concrete is desired, 3. The Blast Furnace or Sulfate Cement used on concrete structures designed to resist chemical attack. The Low Heat Portland Cement used for massive sec- tions designed to reduce the heat of hydration.
The Portland Pozzolan Cement with a low hardening characteristic concrete, 6. The High Alumina Cement. The alumina lime is within the limit of 0. Aside from its rapid hardening properties, it can resist chemical attack by sulfate and weak acids including sea water. It can also with- stand. Alumina cement however, is not advisable for mixing with any other types of cement. Coarse Aggregate such as crushed stone, crushed gravel or natural gravel with particles retained on a 5 mm sieve.
Fine Aggregate such as crushed stone, crushed gravel, sand of natural sand with particles passing on a 5 mm sieve. Size of Aggregates. The choice from the above sizes depends upon the dimen- sions of the concrete member more particularly, the spacing of the steel bars reinforcement or as specified.
This is. Workability 3. Durability 2. Strength 4. The water cement ratio is first determined at the very first hhour of mixing to meet the requirements of strength and durability 2.
Laboratory tests showed that the water-cement content ratio Is the most important consideration in mixing because it deter- mines not only the strength and durability of the concrete but also the workability of the mixture. Fresh concrete shall be workable. That, the hardened concrete shall be strong enough to carry the design load.
That, concrete should be economically produced. Concrete Mixture may be classified as either: a. Prescribed Midture Designed Mixture. Where the contractor Is responsible in establishing the mixture proportion that will achieve the required strength and workability as specified in the plan. Prescribed Mixture. Where the designing engineer specify the mixture proportion. Lately however, under the SI measures, the 94 pounds per bag cement equivalent to Finding the accurate conver Metric sion of length from English to 2.
Determining the approximate value to be used in our simplified methods of estimating.
construction ESTIMATE by Max Fajardo
By definition, Plain Concrete is an artificial stone as a result of mixing cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and water. The conglomeration of these materials producing a solid mass is called plain con- crete. Reinforced Concrete on the other hand, is a concrete with reinforcement properly embedded in such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces. The Ordinary Portland cement.
CONSTRUCTION ESTIMATES BY MAX FAJARDO PDF
File type plumbing design and estimate by max fajardo pdf free download pdf language. Simplified Construction Estimate Fajardo. Allama Iqbal gave the Idea of Pakistan. Watch the video for Madu Tiga from P.