Los sujetos no acosados sufrieron una media de 4 conductas de acoso, con un IMAP de 1, Las frecuencias de respuestas positivas a cada estrategia se presentan en la primera columna de la Tabla 1. La media en los hombres es de 23, 69 dt 8,30 , ligeramente superior a la de las mujeres, que es de 21,73 dt 9, No encontramos tampoco correlaciones significativas entre la edad y el LIPT total corr. Los valores de los indices del LIPT fueron los siguientes v. No hay diferencias significativas entre el valor medio en hombres 31,09 dt 11,18 y en mujeres 28,4 dt 12,5.
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Danais 17, Engomi, P. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Workplace bulling is a pervasive phenomenon with negative consequences for the health of victims and the productivity of organizations. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and forms of workplace bullying among employees working at the public health-care sector of Cyprus using the Greek version of Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror LIPT instrument.
LIPT instrument was distributed among employees working at the primary health-care setting and at the largest public hospital of Cyprus with response rate of Results Women comprised the majority of participants Mean age was Conclusion This was the first study that examined the prevalence of workplace bullying in the public health-care sector by elaborating the Greek version of LIPT instrument. Results showed that workplace bullying is a common and complex phenomenon among health-care organizations.
However, there is no consensus regarding the definition of the concept although these definitions share certain elements: 1 there is a manifestation of interpersonal hostility in the workplace expressed by aggressive behaviors; 2 these hostile behaviors occur on a frequent basis i. Research has shown that workplace bullying is a widespread phenomenon in many European countries. The lack of a standardized definition and methodology applied to measure workplace bullying contribute most probably to the difference in prevalence rates between countries, populations, and organizations .
In Cyprus, there are no studies so far addressing psychological harassment at work. The aim of this study was to translate the French version of LIPT instrument to Greek and to measure the prevalence and forms of workplace bullying among health-care professionals working at the public health-care sector of Cyprus.
The second approach includes self-reporting of bullying within the past 12 months based on a definition proposed by the developer of the French version of LIPT . Materials and methods 2. Leymann and has been validated in several European countries  ,  ,  , . LIPT consists of 45 items, each one measuring the exposure to workplace bullying within the previous 12 months with two response options no or yes. It includes two additional questions on the frequency i.
The 45 bullying behaviors are grouped in five sections  according to the impact of each behavior to the victim: 1 social relationships at work no possibility to communicate, verbal aggression, criticism, and indifference , 2 exclusion isolation, rejection, and avoidance , 3 job tasks no tasks, too many tasks, uninteresting tasks, humiliating tasks, tasks superior, or inferior to skills , 4 personal attacks attacks on opinion or origins, rumors, gossiping, and ridicule , and 5 physical violence physical threats including sexual harassment.
Employees are asked whether they perceive themselves as being bullied within the previous year. For those considering themselves bullied, contributing factors are further investigated.
In the presence of a third reviewer, a reconciliation meeting was conducted, and a consensus version was agreed after reviewing and discussing both translations.
A native French speaking teacher blinded to the original version proceeded to backward translation of the tool from Greek to French. Changes were incorporated in the revised version of the questionnaire, and a cognitive debriefing process was used for the cultural adaption of the questionnaire.
During the process, a pretest study was performed among 12 randomly selected registered nurses. Participants were asked in a semistructured interview to indicate possible words or phrases that were inadequately understood and to provide alternatives as well as to comment on the comprehension of instructions and the clarity of questionnaire in general.
No comments or suggestions were made regarding the comprehension of each of the 45 items and the instructions of the questionnaire. A pilot study was then performed with the participation of another 20 registered nurses. Participants were asked to complete the questionnaire at time zero and 2 weeks later. The time needed to complete the questionnaire was approximately 8—10 minutes.
Study population The present study was the result of two master theses that were based on the study conducted among health-care professionals working at the public health-care sector in Cyprus.
The first thesis  was about a study conducted in a primary health-care setting with the participation of 15 primary health-care centers PHCCs in Nicosia area 8 urban and 7 rural. A total of employees including general practitioners, nurses, administrative staff, and cleaners were working at the selected PHCCs at the time of the study . The NGH operates for a decade with a total of beds and 2, employees. Of those, are physicians of different specialties and are registered nurses .
For practical reasons, the study was performed in the following departments: Surgical, Internal Medicine, Nephrology, Dermatology, Cardiology, Hematology, Orthopedic, and Respiratory. For the first thesis  , the postgraduate student visited each PHCC where a prescheduled meeting took place with physicians, nurses, administrative staff, and cleaners. The personnel were informed about the scope of the study and the procedure regarding the completion and collection of the self-administered anonymous questionnaires.
Together with the distributed questionnaires, a letter was also included stating the aim and the voluntary basis of the participation to the study, as well as the instructions regarding the completion of the questionnaire. The Chief Medical Officer was given the responsibility to gather the questionnaires from each employee.
A 1-week period was given for the completion of the questionnaires that were collected from the postgraduate student. A total of questionnaires were administered at the participating PHCCs, and were returned response rate For the second thesis  , the postgraduate student visited the NGH and had a prescheduled meeting with the Medical Director and Senior Nurse of each participating clinic.
Information about the purpose of the study and the procedure regarding the completion and collection of the anonymous questionnaires was provided. The Senior Nurse at each department was appointed as the person responsible for the distribution and collection of the questionnaires from physicians and nurses. Together with the questionnaire, a letter was also included stating the aim and the voluntary basis of the participation to the study, as well as the instructions regarding the completion of the questionnaire.
A 1-week period was given for the completion of the questionnaires that were collected by the postgraduate student from the Senior Nurse of each clinic. A total of questionnaires were administered at the NGH, and were returned response rate Statistical analysis Continuous variables were expressed as means [standard deviation SD ], and categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages.
Results 3. Reliability of LIPT instrument Test—retest reliability expressed by Pearson correlation coefficient r yielded a value of 0. Characteristics of the study sample The majority of participants were women Mean age for the total sample was A statistically significant difference was also found among participants in regard to the mean length of employment.
Health-care professionals working at the NGH worked for significantly fewer years that those working at the PHCCs mean job tenure was
Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror
Heinz Leymann are listed below, covering 5 categories. Mobbing workplace bullying is present if one or more actions happen about once per week and over a period of at least one year. Other mobbing definitions allow for shorter periods of half a year and ask for more than one frequent mobbing action. Effects on self-expression and communication: Your superior restricts the opportunity for you to express yourself. You are constantly interrupted. Colleagues restrict your opportunity to express yourself. You are yelled at and loudly scolded.
Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terrorization.
Psiquis, 2, 2, Marque en cada una de ellas el grado en que la ha experimentado. Sus superiores no le dejan expresarse o decir lo que tiene que decir. Le interrumpen cuando habla. Critican su trabajo.