This is a two-part piece which analyses the Indra Sawhney Case — a case that is famous for both settling several issues and unsettling several others in the great Indian backward-class-reservation jurisprudence. We hope you enjoy reading this as much as we have enjoyed putting this together. Union of India, established a central role for itself in every debate on the sensitive issue of reservations in India. One of the avowed objectives of the Indian Constitution is the creation of an egalitarian society, including, and especially, by way of the eradication of caste and the caste system. In support of this objective, several successive governments have devised various affirmative action policies to eradicate caste and support the social mobility of backward classes. These measures typically include reserving seats in representative and educational institutions or public employment for members of certain classes that have been traditionally and historically marginalised.
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References[ edit ] Its terms of references were to: 1. Determine the criteria to be adopted in considering whether any sections of the people in the territory of India in addition to the SC and ST as socially and educationally backward classes, using such criteria it was to prepare a list of such classes setting out also their approximate members and their territorial distribution.
Investigate the conditions of all such socially and educationally backward classes and the differences under which they labour and make recommendations 1. Investigate such other matters as the president may hereafter refer to them and 4. Present to the president a report setting out the facts as found by them and making such recommendations as they think proper. For identifying socially and educationally backward classes, the commission adopted the following criteria: 1.
Low social position in the traditional caste hierarchy of Hindu society. Lack of general educational advancement among the major section of a caste or community.
Inadequate or no representation in government services. Inadequate representation in the field of trade, commerce and industry Following descriptions was used for classification of various communities as educationally and socially backward: 1.
Those who suffer from the stigma of untouchability or near untouchability. Those tribes who are not yet sufficiently assimilated in the general social order. Those who, owing to long neglect, have been driven as community to crime. Ex-criminal or Denotified Groups 4. Those nomads who do not enjoy any social respect and who have no appreciation of a fixed habitat and are given to mimicry, begging, jugglery, dancing, etc. Communities consisting largely of agricultural and landless laborers.
Communities consisting largely of tenants without occupancy rights and those with insecure land tenure. Communities consisting of a large percentage of small land owners with uneconomic holdings. Communities engaged in cattle breeding, sheep breeding or fishing on a small scale. Artisans and occupational classes without security of employment and whose traditional occupations have ceased to be remunerative.
Communities, the majority of whose people do not have sufficient education and, therefore, have not secured adequate representation in government services. Social groups among the Muslims, Christians and Sikhs who are still backward socially and educationally. Communities occupying low position in social hierarchy. Recommendations[ edit ] The commission submitted its report on 30 March Undertaking caste-wise enumeration of population in the census of Relating social backwardness of a class to its low position in the traditional caste hierarchy of Hindu society, 3.
Reservation of 70 per cent seats in all technical and professional institutions for qualified students of backward classes. That special economic measures be taken to uplift the OBCs economically through such programmes as extensive land reforms, reorganization of village economy, Bhoodan movement, development of livestock, dairy farming, cattle insurance, bee-keeping, piggery, fisheries, development of rural housing, public health and rural water supply, adult literacy programme, etc.
The commission observed that although untouchability or tribal character may not be found, the backwardness persists, the tribal people found anywhere in the state should be brought under the list and a uniform policy must be followed throughout India in the interest of the advancement of these classes otherwise it will amount to setting a premium on their remaining within certain areas.
It would be invidious to single out sections of the community or areas of modernization and to deprive people of help on that score. Let the whole community get modernized. The whole state should be one unit and the help offered to the tribal people must be given to them irrespective of their shifting from one areas to another in the state.
The privileged classes must voluntarily renounce their privileges and their claims to social superiority and must work wholeheartedly for the eradication of social evils. The ultimate solution seems to be that all production and distribution should be on a socialistic basis and that people should be encouraged to establish the necessary moral basis and to train themselves for the change over.
In India, economic backwardness is often the result and not the cause of social evils. In the final analysis, I stand for a social order in which neither religion nor political power are organized to control the destinies of humanity. Just as we stand for a secular democracy, I stand for a non-political social order based on mutual love, trust, respect and service. But, this has nothing to do with the universal adult franchise which I accept whole-heartedly.
According to the terms of reference to the commission, we were asked to consider whether any sections of the people of the territory of India, in addition to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, should be treated as socially and educationally backward classes. We feel we were justified in accepting the traditional interpretation. We were warned by well-wishers of the country that investigations into caste may encourage people to be caste-conscious, and thus increase the atmosphere of communalism.
Following the analogy if the proverb, viz. The Class of Shepherd Community i. Those communities generally live in rural areas, and are mostly victims of the domination of the privileged and dominant communities. It should be an irony and a mockery of justice to allow such dominant communities to claim to be the natural leaders of these starred communities who are the victims of their domination.
It can be safely said that those who possess large tracts of land; those who have enough money to lend, those who have brains to create quarrels and factions amongst the people, and those who have the tradition of wielding governmental power, are all dominant people in the rural areas.
I did not succeed in the effort of classifying the backward classes because I could not carry conviction to my colleagues that these dominant communities must be segregated if the victims of domination have to be saved. Who, then are the backward people? Evidently those who do not command adequate and sufficient representation in government service, those who do not command large amount of natural resources like land, money and industrial undertakings; those who live in ill-ventilated houses; those who are nomadic; those who live by begging and other unwholesome means; those who are agricultural laborers or those who practice unremunerative occupations without any means to enter better paying professions; and those who on account of poverty, ignorance and other social disabilities are unable to educate themselves or produce sufficient leadership, are all backward.
The communities, classes or social groups who occupy an inferior social position in relation to the upper castes and who also answer the above description, naturally come under the category of other backward classes. It is therefore, essential that no dominating community should be allowed to claim to be the protectors of the weaker sections.
It is only the good men from every community, men who are imbued with a sense of social justice, who can forget caste prejudices, are prepared to surrender their privileges and who can combine to usher in a new era of social justice and universal familyhood, that can be natural leaders and protectors of the helpless, mute and suffering masses.
It is much better if new communities are allowed to try their hands at leadership. Only those like Nehru, are above communal considerations and even nationalistic considerations, should be allowed, to formulate the policy of the nation. It is no use challenging the leadership of the best in the land by searching out the community to which they belong, and then accusing them that they are monopolizing leadership for the upper classes.
All monopoly must be broken even of it is fully justified and opportunities for service must be assured to all sections of the population. He has given the history of reservations and political leadership in India. Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes[ edit ] This commission also examined the existing list of Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribes and recommended certain additions to, and deletions from, these lists.
Implementation[ edit ] This report was rejected by the Central government on the ground that it had not applied any objective tests for identifying the Backward Class. Thus there was a need of second backward classes Commission.
Mandal, a former member of Parliament. After India became independent in , Dr. On 31 March the Kalelkar Commission submitted its report, including a list of 2, "backward" groups, of which were considered "most backward," using caste as the major evidence of backwardness. Procedures and Recommendations The Mandal Commission developed eleven indicators of social, educational, and economic backwardness. One indicator was being considered backward by other castes or classes. Other indicators included depending mainly on manual labor for livelihood and having an average value of family assets at least 25 percent below the state average. In addition to identifying backward classes among Hindus, the Mandal Commission identified backward classes among non-Hindus e.
Kaka Kalelkar Commission (Useful Notes)
Leading to the formation of the Mandal Commission, Indian society was based largely on the principles of Caste, and to that extent a partially closed system. The lack of social mobility created a social stratification that played a dominant role within Indian society, laying the context for the Mandal Commission to be formed. Other Backward Classes have historically been excluded from opportunities and rights that lead to socioeconomic advancement in Indian society. Respectively, the first did not impair the caste system as a form of "social stratification" and the second type of change lead to the caste system to transform entirely. Educational background in relation to occupation between two generations were found to be directly correlated. Additionally, the overlap between cast and economics became more apparent  Setting up the Mandal Commission[ edit ]. The First Backward Classes Commission had a broad-based membership, the Second Commission seemed to be shaped on partisan lines, composed of members only from the backward castes.
KALELKAR COMMISSION REPORT PDF
References[ edit ] Its terms of references were to: 1. Determine the criteria to be adopted in considering whether any sections of the people in the territory of India in addition to the SC and ST as socially and educationally backward classes, using such criteria it was to prepare a list of such classes setting out also their approximate members and their territorial distribution. Investigate the conditions of all such socially and educationally backward classes and the differences under which they labour and make recommendations 1. Investigate such other matters as the president may hereafter refer to them and 4. Present to the president a report setting out the facts as found by them and making such recommendations as they think proper.
Mandal Commission Report
This is a very important topic,from this topic every year one or two questions are asked. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It submitted its report in indentifying 2, castes as backward. The expert panel approached the project through commisssion set of tasks such as.