See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract We compare four different risk-taking propensity measures on their ability to describe and to predict actual risky behavior in the domain of health. The risk-taking propensity measures we compare are: 1 a general measure of risk-taking propensity derived from a one-item survey question Dohmen et al. Study participants are clients of health centers around Witbank, South Africa.
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Abstract Background Despite the continuing growth of international tourism, very little research has been done on the link between individual risk attitudes and health behaviours during travel. Our study uses a validated risk-taking questionnaire Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale DOSPERT and data from a smartphone application to study the association between pre-travel risk attitudes and the occurrence of behaviours during travel.
Methods A prospective cohort of travellers to Thailand used a smartphone application to answer a daily questionnaire about health behaviours and events. Multiple linear regression models were used to model the relationship between DOSPERT risk-taking subdomain score and health behaviour.
Results Of the 75 travellers that completed the study, 70 Men, backpackers and young travellers reported a higher willingness to take recreational risks than women, luxury travellers and older travellers. Conclusions In our study, individual scores on risk-taking in the health and safety subdomain of the DOSPERT questionnaire seem to be predictive of health behaviours both during travel and at home.
By pairing new methods of data collection with questionnaires such as DOSPERT that identify key traveller characteristics to intervene on, travel medicine doctors will be able to provide more specialised health advice, ensuring that all travellers receive well-rounded advice about the full range of health challenges they will face during travel.
While infectious disease prevention during travel has been well addressed in both research and clinical practice e. The limited evidence base for providing effective behavioural health advice and targeting it to the appropriate travellers means that many are unprepared for the health risks they may face during travel.
Risk-taking attitudes and risk perception have been clearly linked in several studies to health behaviour, 14 and tools have been developed by psychologists to measure the risk-taking attitude of individuals in different domains.
While some research has been done on risk perception among travellers, 16 , 17 our study is the first to our knowledge to be able to link information on risk attitudes to prospective data on actual incidence of health events and health risk behaviours during travel. In this analysis, we aimed 1 to describe risk perception and risk taking among travellers to Thailand, especially differences in demographic subgroups, and 2 determine if the results of a validated risk perception questionnaire are predictive of health risk behaviours during travel.
Methods Study population A prospective cohort of travellers to Thailand was recruited from the travel clinics of Zurich and Basel Switzerland between January and June of To participate in the study, travellers agreed to 1 complete a pre-travel questionnaire with complete self-reported demographic and medical information, 2 complete a pre-travel questionnaire assessment of risk perception and 3 download the study smartphone application TRAVEL app and complete a daily electronic questionnaire on health risk behaviours and health events during travel Figure 1.
Study participants were considered to have completed the study when they had completed at least one survey during travel and did not ask to be removed from the study. Study recruitment, questionnaire development and study methodology are described in detail elsewhere.
Pre-travel measurement of attitudes towards risk taking and risk perception: DOSPERT To assess perception of risk among the study travellers, a literature search was conducted to identify a validated questionnaire capable of assessing risk perception among travellers. Participants were asked to fill out the same DOSPERT questionnaire twice, first rating their likelihood to engage in the behaviour, and on the second pass to rate their perception of how risky the behaviour is.
To interpret the scores of the study population, the overall subdomain means are compared with the scores of the general population in a DOSPERT validation study. While using seatbelts in an automobile in Switzerland is mandatory, helmet use during bicycling is not.
Smoking status, age and sex were also recorded. Measurement of health risk behaviours during travel During study design, key health risk behaviours and health events during travel were identified by focus groups with experts and developed into a questionnaire using cognitive debriefings with previous travellers to Thailand. The risk behaviour domains identified included food and drink risk behaviours e. Study participants were then asked to answer the resulting questionnaire about health behaviour in Thailand daily during their trips using a smartphone application the TRAVEL app developed for study purposes.
To calculate an overall incidence measure for each risk behaviour domain, the total number of risk behaviours reported per day was summed up over the course of the trip and then divided by the total number of questionnaire-days the participant completed during their trip.
The domain-specific means and their standard deviations are reported for the study population as a whole, and for relevant subgroups e. To model the relationship between health behaviour domain outcome and DOSPERT risk-taking subdomain score predictor , multiple linear regression models were used. Regression coefficients and P-values were reported. All models were adjusted by age and sex. All analyses were done in R version 3.
Results Of the eligible participants who enrolled in the study, 75 completed the study. Participants spent a median of The full study cohort is described in greater detail elsewhere. Of these 70 participants, 69 Of the 70 participants, 61 filled out the DOSPERT risk perception scale completely and 9 were missing one item each from the ethical and financial domains.
Figure 1. Study Flow Diagram. Data collection points pre- and during travel. Questionnaires administered included the DOSPERT assessment prior to travel and a health behaviour and symptoms questionnaire daily during the trip. Open in new tab Download slide Study Flow Diagram. General risk taking and risk perception attitudes among travellers to Thailand Overall means for willingness to take risks are calculated across the five subdomains in Table 1 , with the lowest scores on the ethical subdomain This overall pattern is similar to that found in the validation study, but Swiss travellers scored lower on their willingness to take risks in every subdomain except recreational; Swiss travellers scored particularly low on their willingness to take ethical or financial risks Figure 2.
Table 1. A higher score indicates a higher willingness to take the risk or higher perception of how risky that activity is, with possible scores ranging from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of The validation study means are included to compare scores of Swiss travellers to those of the general population. Ethical domain.
A Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT) scale for adult populations
Abstract Background Despite the continuing growth of international tourism, very little research has been done on the link between individual risk attitudes and health behaviours during travel. Our study uses a validated risk-taking questionnaire Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale DOSPERT and data from a smartphone application to study the association between pre-travel risk attitudes and the occurrence of behaviours during travel. Methods A prospective cohort of travellers to Thailand used a smartphone application to answer a daily questionnaire about health behaviours and events. Multiple linear regression models were used to model the relationship between DOSPERT risk-taking subdomain score and health behaviour.
Dospery our study, individual scores on risk-taking in the health and safety subdomain of the DOSPERT questionnaire seem to be predictive of health behaviours both during travel and at home. Brown and Braver article A computational model of risk, conflict, and individual difference effects in the anterior cingulate cortex from Brain Research. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 15, Judgment and Decision Making, 1, For details see Blais and Weber It dosoert obvious that people differ in the way they resolve work-related or personal decisions that involve risk and uncertainty. Wilke, Hutchinson, Todd, and Kruger article Is risk taking used as a cue in mate choice?
A Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT) Scale for Adult Populations